Big brother under the bumper
Ever get the sneaking suspicion you are being watched? Maybe you should look under your bumper. On Sunday, July 6, three Boulder residents discovered sophisticated Global Positioning System (GPS) devices attached to the bottom of their cars, apparently used by someone to track the whereabouts of their vehicles.
The devices contained no immediate clues as to who planted them or who used them to collect information, leaving the residents with troubling questions: Who would be willing to spend the time and energy to track them? And are we all being watched far more carefully than we might want to imagine?
Sunday morning surprise
New York native Mike Nicosia is passionate about protecting animals. Hes been this way ever since he learned of their plight six years ago.
"I was just appalled to see the way animals are treated for everything from fur farms to slaughter houses," he says. "I wanted to do more to help animals. Because animals dont have a voice, I wanted to be a voice for them."
Nicosia became a vegan, participated in animal-rights protests and launched a Long Island chapter of The Coalition to Abolish the Fur Trade.
"We have a no-nonsense approach to destroying the fur trade," says Nicosia of the organization. "That means protests, civil disobedience and outreach, as well as supporting the ALF."
ALF stands for the Animal Liberation Front, a controversial organization that combats animal abuse by releasing animals from testing laboratories and destroying the property of those they deem to be exploiting animals.
While Nicosia says he had no direct connections with the ALF, he publicly supported the organizations tactics. That was when the surveillance began.
Nicosia says wiretaps were installed on his phone. He was photographed at protests. Plainclothes officers would follow him to his car. He also received death threats from people within the fur industry. One prominent fur community member was eventually issued a restraining order after repeatedly threatening Nicosias life.
Nicosia came to Boulder two and a half years ago to study psychology at Naropa University. Since arriving here, Nicosia has started a new student group: the Student Organization for Animal Rights. Nicosia says the groups main focus is education about the benefits of a vegan lifestyle, not civil disobedience.
Nicosia stresses he still has no association with ALF and no ties to members of the organization, with the exception of his roommateRod Coronado.
Rod Coronado is well known in activist circles. A member of the Earth First! movement and former media spokesperson for the ALF, he has been a vigilant supporter of the animal rights and environmental movements for 20 years.
"I have always been an outspoken critic of Americas environmental policy and an open defender of actions to defend wilderness and the animals," says Coronado.
In 1994, Coronado was arrested for an arson attack at Michigan State Universitys mink research facilities. After serving four years in prison and three years in suspended release, Coronado began traveling around the country talking about his previous actions and his political beliefs.
Over the past six months, Coronado and other activists have been involved in a campaign against the logging in northwest California, protesting in front of the homes of executives of the Houston-based Maxxam Corporation, which owns the lumber company responsible for the logging.
"We dont destroy property; we dont break the law in any way. We are just exercising our free speech rights," says Coronado. "Nevertheless, these people are very much affected, and its enough that they are very much aware of why we are there. We are holding them accountable for what they have been profiting from for years."
Federal surveillance is a routine part of Coronados life, and he says officials have been increasingly interested in his activities since he began visiting the homes of Maxxam executives. That doesnt mean he wasnt surprised on Sunday morning, July 6, when he was attaching a trailer hitch to his car and noticed something underneath his vehicle that wasnt supposed to be there.
Nicosia says he was inside asleep that morning when Coronado discovered the large black devices attached behind the rear bumpers of his and his girlfriends cars on the drivers side. When Nicosia woke up, Coronado showed him the strange tangles of wires and electronics. Nicosia immediately became curious if such a device had also been planted on his car.
It took just a moment to discover the answer.
Eyes in the sky
A GPS device is essentially a super-charged version of the standard compass; instead of just telling its user which way is north, a GPS device will determine its exact location on earth.
A GPS system operates by interacting with satellites orbiting the earth containing highly accurate atomic clocks. When activated, the GPS device will "look" at four of the satellites simultaneously. By comparing the different times it reads on each of the atomic clocks, the GPS device will calculate its distance from each satellite. Using this information, the GPS device can determine not only its location, but also the exact time it was at that location. Sensitive GPS devices can be accurate down to a nanosecond and within 15 to 20 meters.
While Nicosia and Coronado are not GPS experts, they immediately assumed the devices found on their cars and Coronados girlfriends car were GPS systems, especially since one component was labeled GPS Antenna.
When Nicosia brought his device to GPS Solutions, a Boulder-based software developer of high-accuracy GPS technology, chief engineer Jim Johnson confirmed their suspicion.
"This is definitely a GPS board," says Johnson, referring to one of the components of the device.
According to Johnson, the devices in question contain four main components: a battery pack containing four lithium D cell batteries, a GPS antenna, a cellular antenna and a main component box. The component box contains a GPS receiver, a computer chip and a cellular modem. All the components were wired together and attached by powerful magnets to the cars undersides.
When attached to the car, the GPS antenna likely points downwards towards the ground, to pick up signals from GPS satellites that bounce off the road. This information is sent to the GPS receiver, which determines its location at least within 100 meters, says Johnson. This information can then be transmitted from the car to an outside source using the modem and cellular antenna, just like a normal cell phone call. The computer chip can be programmed to determine when the information is transmitted. Its possible the information was sent out on a set schedule, or if the vehicles entered or left a specified area.
But where was the GPS information sent?
The answer is not readily available. One thing is for sure, however: The devices are not cheap.
"They are putting some money into it," says Johnson about the systems, which he estimates could cost about $2,000 each.
Coronado says he is going to auction his device on eBay and donate the proceeds to the animal-rights organization Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty.
Another enigma is who built these devices, which Johnson says were probably custom made. While the GPS antennas are labeled with serial numbers and the manufacturer name Trimble, one of the leading developers of GPS technology, other components in the device are not made by Trimble, says Johnson. Most of the components contain no labels at all, making them untraceable. When Trimble was contacted and asked if the antennas sales histories could be tracked using their serial numbers, the company spokesperson did not respond before press time.
Nicosia and Coronado believe the devices were likely placed on their cars while they were in Boulder during this past May, since this was the only period of time and place the cars were all at the same location. Coronado believes he is the main reason the devices were planted on their cars, because of his controversial history. He says the GPS device was likely planted on his girlfriends car because he often uses it.
Nicosia, who was both shocked and a little flattered his car was bugged, also believes he was targeted because he lives with Coronado.
"I think its just the guilt by association. Me calling (Coronado), hanging out with him has made me a target," says Nicosia.
But the true explanation is probably not so simple. The car belonging to Nicosias and Coronados other roommatewho is not involved in animal rightswas not bugged. Whoever planted the devices had done some homework.
While he has no definitive proof, Coronado has several theories as to who was tracking the vehicles. The most obvious suspect, he says, is the FBI.
"I believe it was the federal authorities," says Coronado. "I think that the technology is beyond that of the private sector. The days of an FBI parked in a dark sedan in front of our house are over."
Coronado is no stranger to the FBI. Agents often show up at animal rights and environmental demonstrations he takes part in, says Coronado. Last year the FBIs top domestic terrorism official told a congressional hearing that ALF was one of the most active domestic terrorist organizations, and that at least 26 FBI field offices around the country were dealing with ALF activities.
Coronado and many of his compatriots would not put it past the FBI to tamper with their belongings, even if it endangered activists in the process. In 1990, Earth First! Activist Judi Bari was nearly killed when a bomb equipped with a motion detector exploded underneath her seat. She was on her way to meet Coronado. While local FBI agents claimed that the bomb belonged to Bari, skeptics pointed out that the same FBI agents had recently used a strikingly similar bomb scenario in a "bomb schools" it had taught to area police officers. Last year a federal jury ruled that FBI agents and police officers framed Bari and a coworker for the attack that nearly killed them.
Another clue that might link the GPS systems to the FBI are three hand-written numbers discovered inside of the devices battery packs, a different number for each device. The numbers141, 142 and 447could be used for tracking purposes, says Coronado, and could suggest that the devices might be part of a much larger fleet of similar systemsa fleet that could only belong to a major organization.
FBI spokesperson Ann Atanasio could not explicitly say whether or not the FBI had a role in the matter.
"I cannot confirm or deny the existence of an investigation," says Atanasio, who also could not comment on FBI tracking techniques or its position on the ALF.
Coronado is not surprised that the FBI will not talk about that subject.
"Thats the FBI standard policy." he says. "They are not going to say, Oh yeah, were the FBI. We do stuff like that." Coronado believes FBIs refusal to investigate the matter only further suggests they are involved.
But Coronado is not certain the FBI was responsible, especially since the devices were far from inconspicuous.
"I kind of am surprised that the FBI would be stupid enough to think we would not find these things on our cars," he says.
Another suspect could be the Maxxam Corporation, which Coronado and his compatriots have been protesting. After all, says Coronado, since the company had enough money to recently sponsor a prominent ad campaign labeling Coronado an eco-terrorist, they should have enough money to electronically track Coronados whereabouts.
When contacted, Maxxam spokesperson Josh Reiss declined to respond to the allegations.
A third possibility, says Coronado, is the Center for Consumer Freedom, a nonprofit coalition sponsored by restaurants, food companies and tobacco corporations that oppose "anti-consumer activists." The Center has been actively discouraging venues around the country from sponsoring Coronados seminars, calling him a domestic terrorist.
Mike Burita, communications director for Center for Consumer Freedom, says the organization does not partake in cloak and dagger techniques.
"The suggestion we put a GPS (device) on Rod Coronados car is ridiculous," he says. "We are not in the business of covert surveillance."
Could the activists have planted the devices themselves for media attention?
Nicosia says the idea is outrageous.
"Its not like Imaking minimum wage, struggling just to get by in Boulderam going to throw together six or seven thousand dollars and fabricate a story," he says.
"If I had a couple thousand bucks in my pocket, Im going to use it to generate media attention by putting pressure on (lumber companies), not by planting something on my car," says Coronado. "Anybody who knows me knows that repression is not something I joke around about. I spent four years of my life in jail because of this shit. The last thing I am going to do is play with that with my friends life, the people I most love and trust."
So who is responsible for the GPS devices? In reality, it could be anybody who has several thousand dollars and knows how to use the Internet.
A quick Internet Google search using the words "GPS car tracking" produces thousands of websites selling these types of devices. A Trimble GPS magnetic-mount antenna similar to the ones found by Coronado and Nicosia was being sold this week on eBay with a starting price of $25.95.
"I could buy one of these things today," says GPS Solutions engineer Johnson about the tracking device. "In this town, probably 25 percent of people could easily do it."
A world without privacy
"GPS is used for an amazingly large number of things, much more than it was originally (designed) for," says Johnson.
GPS technology was first unveiled in 1982 as a military tool. Back then a GPS receiver cost about $200,000 and weighed 150 pounds. There were only six GPS satellites, meaning that there was only a small window of time each day that there were enough satellites in range for an accurate GPS reading.
Today GPS receivers weigh only a few ouncessmall enough to be installed inside cell phonesand are surprisingly inexpensive. Johnson says one of the cheapest components in the GPS devices found in Boulder is the receiver. Now there are 24 satellites in the sky dedicated to GPS tracking. And GPS systems are popping up everywhere
"It can be used for anything you can think of to track moving objects," says Johnson. Companies and organizations like GPS Solutions use the technology to monitor the motion of the earths crust and atmospheric pressure and temperature, among other things. GPS systems are used to locate vehicles ranging from police cars to taxis to forklifts in factories. One Boulder-based company, Intuicom, has installed GPS devices on Boulder buses and tracks their location around the city on their website: http://www.intuicom.com/www/solutions/avl_demo/demo_frame.htm. And the potential for saving human lives is endless, from locating lost hikers to predicting tsunamis.
But along with its potential benefits, the rise of GPS also means new questions about privacy and surveillance in society.
"Certainly there are ethical issues," says Johnson about GPS technology. "The downside of GPS is it is a military weapon, and there are privacy issues down the line."
For example, says Johnson, what if Nicosia had driven his car to Denver International Airport without knowing about the device behind his bumper? And what if airport security had noticed the suspicious electronics and wires?
But Johnson says the problem lies not with the technology, but with how it is used.
"This is not the only way you can be tracked," says Johnson. "The problem isnt so much that there is GPS. The problem is that there are people that want to stretch the limits of your basic freedoms, whether they do it by staking you out and following you or do it with a piece of equipment. That issue is always there."
Betty Ball, a Boulder activist who works at the locally based Rocky Mountain Peace and Justice Center, agrees that technologies like GPS can be beneficial. But the discovery of these devices on local residents cars suggest a sinister concept to Ballthat the U.S. governments long-term policy of keeping tabs on controversial groups has reached a new technological horizon. And Ball isnt sure anyone will be safe.
"Who knows how widespread it is," she says. "These (GPS devices) we know about were found by pretty well-known activists who have quite a history of activism and resistance. But you never really know what (the authorities) are going to go after and who they really consider a key person they need to keep track of and follow."
Ball believes this type of high-tech surveillance has become common thanks to the same national climate of fear and oppression that led to the passage of the Patriot Act, the post-Sept. 11 federal legislation which gave authorities sweeping new powers to combat terrorismeven at the expense of citizens rights, some critics say.
"My impression is that our government knows they are going too far," says Ball. "They are implementing laws and policies going against the will of the people to the degree they are going to get massive resistance, and that is why they came up with the Patriot Act, and this means of GPS surveillance, and surveillance of our computers and websites and e-mail and all that kind of stuff. Its all part and parcel of the same thing, that the government knows they are going to encounter massive resistance, so they are taking every opportunity right now to create the controls to control us."
The only option, says Ball, is to fight tooth and nail to protect U.S. civil liberties from being eroded by new legislation and new technologies.
"(The government) is trying to scare usthey are using these intimidation tactics to scare people. And we cant afford to let that happen," says Ball. "The more people that get involved, the more people who resist this kind of thing, the better off we are going to be."
If someone was trying to scare Nicosia into submission, they were not successful. While Nicosia is still doesnt like the idea of some shadowy individual monitoring him, it has not caused Nicosia to curtail his involvement in the animal-rights movement.
"Its made me more determined and vigilant," he says. "Im going to go out there and work even harder for the animals now."
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